Spooner KL, Fraser-Bell S, Cozzi M, Staurenghi G, Invernizzi A, Monteduro D, Munk MR, Hong T, Chang AA. Macular Atrophy Incidence and Progression in Eyes with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration Treated with VEGF Inhibitors Using a Treat-and-Extend or a Pro-Re-Nata Regimen. Four Year Results of the MANEX Study. Ophthalmology. 2020 Jun 13.
To compare the incidence and progression of macular atrophy (MA) in eyes with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents using either a treat-and-extend (T&E) or a pro re nata (PRN) regimen over 4 years in a real-world setting.
Four-year, multicenter, retrospective comparative study.
Consecutive patients with nAMD received anti-VEGF therapy according to a T&E (n = 163) or PRN (n = 101) regimen. Eyes were included if they had received anti-VEGF injections for a period of at least 4 years and had undergone annual fundus autofluorescence (FAF) and OCT imaging using Heidelberg Spectralis. Two masked graders independently delineated areas of MA from serial FAF images using Heidelberg region finder software, and growth rates were calculated. Incident MA was assessed using proportional hazard ratios.
Main outcomes measures:
Macular atrophy incidence and progression over 4 years, association between treatment strategies, and number of injections.
At baseline, MA was present in 24% and 20% of study eyes in T&E and PRN groups, respectively (P = 0.45). At year 4, 27% (34/124) and 25% (20/81) of eyes without baseline MA showed detectable MA in the T&E and PRN groups, respectively. In those with MA at baseline, the mean square root area of MA progressed by a rate of 0.4 ± 0.2 mm/year and 0.4 ± 0.1 mm/year in the T&E and PRN groups, respectively (P = 0.23). Multivariate analysis for baseline predictors of MA growth demonstrated that older age, poorer baseline visual acuity, and presence of retinal angiomatous proliferation had a higher risk of greater MA progression (P = 0.03). Regression analysis demonstrated no association between T&E and PRN treatment strategies with the risk of new MA developing during the 4 years of follow-up or the progression of pre-existing MA at year 4 (P = 0.692).
Over 4 years, neither incidence nor progression of MA in eyes with nAMD treated with anti-VEGF injections was influenced by the treatment regimen and injection frequency. Eyes treated with a T&E regimen received more injections and achieved better visual outcomes compared with those treated with a PRN approach.